To clarify the meaning of research integrity, the collective Dutch knowledge field (KNAW, NFU, NWO, the TO2 Federation, VH and UNL) has established the Netherlands Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. In this code, the five principles that form the foundation for integrity in research (honesty, diligence, transparency, independence and responsibility) are elaborated into 61 standards of good research practice. The code also contains guidelines for addressing alleged violations of research integrity.
There is also a European code of conduct: European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, elaborated by the European Federation of Academies of Sciences and Humanities (ALLEA), in which the Netherlands is represented by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). The European Commission recognises this Code as the reference document for research integrity for all EU-funded research projects and as a model for organisations and researchers throughout Europe. Various knowledge institutions have their own codes of conduct, in which their internal rules concerning research integrity and/or security are further elaborated. For example, the University Medical Centres have ‘research codes’.